Rigid beam-to-column connections are generally subjected to axial and shear forces in addition to bending and torsional moments. Design equation for end-plate thickness of these connections has been extensively investigated
Friction-type connections are widely used to connect steel members where slipping is not permitted under serviceability loads. The friction developed between the faying surfaces transfers the design shear forces at the serviceability limit states. The bolts act in tension and are not subject to shear.